great personal dishonor or humiliation


great personal dishonor or humiliation

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Although Ravana burned at the ignominy of having been defeated and spared by Rama, he had no option except to jump off his stationary chariot and run back to Lanka to save his life. Mahabharata:  Duryodhana couldn’t bear the ignominy of having been defeated by the Gandhavas in front of the Pandavas


having or showing courage and spirit in trying circumstances

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Maricha had expected at best a plucky display of archery from the teenage princes; he hadn’t at all expected speed, strength and skill that could not even be tolerated, leave alone defeated. Mahabharata:  Abhimanyu’s plucky fighting even while surrounded by enemies won the admiration of Drona on the battlefield and the celestials


to exist or continue in miserable or disheartening conditions

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Far from languishing in the forest during exile, Rama and Sita had relished some of their happiest moments in the seclusion of the forest. Mahabharata:  The Pandavas refused to languish while in exile; they all prepared in various ways for the upcoming confrontation with the Kauravas at the end of the exile.


a temporary relief from pain or harm

Example Sentences: Ramayana: Although Bharata was saddened by Rama’s refusal to return from exile, still just being in the presence of Rama had provided him a much-needed reprieve. Mahabharata: Seeing Bhima unaffected by his deadly blow, the surprised Duryodhana slowed down in his follow-up attack, thereby unintentionally providing Bhima a vital reprieve. Bhagavad-gita: What we


to put something forward for either acceptance or rejection

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  When Kaikeyi shamefacedly proffered an apology to Rama for having been misled by Manthara, Rama embraced her graciously, saying, “There’s nothing to be forgiven; it was all the will of destiny.” Mahabharata:  When Karna accepted the friendship proffered by Duryodhana, he had no idea how it would tragically alter the trajectory of


to make a serious decision to stop doing something, to renounce earnestly

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  After seeing Rama’s fearsome power in punishing demons, Maricha forswore all demoniac actions. Mahabharata:  A lesser-known reason for Krishna’s being a non-combatant in the Kurukshetra war is that he had forsworn all use of weapons after killing the demon Dantavakra. Bhagavad-gita:  Unless we forswear sensual pleasures, we can’t have the steady focus


stubbornly obstructive and unwilling to cooperate

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  When Ravana remained bloody-minded in his refusal to return Sita to Rama, the war became inevitable. Mahabharata:  When Krishna presented his peace proposal to Dhritarashtra, the blind king replied it was his bloody-minded son Duryodhana who needed to be persuaded. Bhagavad-gita:  Because Arjuna was so overwhelmed with compassion that all the assembled


to overwhelm usually by greatly superior force

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Seeing Kumbhakarna steamrollering the monkey army, Hanuman stepped forward to challenge the huge demon. Mahabharata:  As Arjuna steamrollered the Kaurava army, he was suddenly stopped by Duryodhana wearing Drona’s impenetrable armor. Bhagavad-gita:  If we weaken and contemplate sensual temptation, it will steamroller our inner defenses and impel us to do things that


a critical remark meant to harm someone’s reputation

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  When Lakshmana angrily accused Dasharatha of being infatuated with lust for his youngest wife, Rama’s stern expression indicated that he wouldn’t tolerate such a slur on their father’s reputation. Mahabharata:  During the Rajasuya sacrifice, Shishupala went mad, casting slurs not just on Krishna but even those devoted to Krishna such as Bhishma.