something that severely limits development or activity in a way that is damaging


causing or involving calamity, disastrous

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Although all of his leading warriors were dead, Ravana couldn’t bring himself to admit that his abduction of Sita had been a calamitous blunder. Mahabharata:  Although Abhimanyu’s death had made the thirteenth day of the Kurukshetra war calamitous for the Pandavas, Drona knew that an enraged Arjuna accompanied by Krishna could make


very intense or extreme, unbearable

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  As Rama and Lakshmana raced back to their cottage, their anxiety about Sita’s safety became excruciating. Mahabharata:  As Arjuna closed in on Jayadratha but was suddenly blocked by nearly a dozen Kaurava warriors, the tension became excruciating. Bhagavad-gita:  When Arjuna put aside his bow in the middle of the Kurukshetra battlefield and


a period of time spent in a particular way

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  The immobility imposed by the rainy season triggered a bout of sensuality in Sugriva who had just returned to royal luxury after a long period of exile in austerity. Mahabharata:  Although Bhishma’s fall triggered a brief bout of doubt in Duryodhana’s heart about his army’s capacity to defeat the Pandavas, that feeling


mean and cowardly 

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Knowing that a night attack was not beyond the dastardly Ravana, Rama and several of his journals kept a night-long vigil throughout the entire duration of the war. Mahabharata:  Kripacharya told Ashvattama that his plan to attack sleeping warriors was too dastardly to even consider, leave alone act on. Bhagavad-gita:  Nothing is


offensively bold or disrespectful

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Although Ravana considered Hanuman to be impudent, the monkey was only speaking in the language that Ravana was likely to understand: the language of power. Mahabharata:  When impudent Duryodhana slapped his thigh in response to the sage Maitreya’s earnest request, he sealed his pact with death. Bhagavad-gita:   People of demoniac nature


the main thing or person needed to support something or to make it happen

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  Although Angada had been the official leader of the team of monkeys that had gone south, Hanuman emerged as its natural fulcrum by the time they returned.  Mahabharata:  While Duryodhana considered Bhima and Arjuna to be the fulcrum of the Pandava army, Bhishma knew that Krishna was their actual fulcrum. Bhagavad-gita:  Illustrating


a summary of the essentials of a text

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  A precis of the Ramayana, no matter how well done, just can’t convey the poetry, the artistry or the beauty of the Sanskrit epic. Mahabharata:  For the fretful Duryodhana, the eighth day of the war was like a precis of all his encounters with the Pandavas – although it seemed he had


harsh, grating 

Example Sentences: Ramayana:  As Sugriva waited outside the cave, hearing intently, he couldn’t hear Vali’s fierce roars, the demon’s rasping grunts or any sound at all. Mahabharata:  Duryodhana’s rasping cry, “Kill Bhima!” moved none of his troops; they were struck with fear on seeing Bhima’s power and anger. Bhagavad-gita:  As Arjuna observed the opposing armies,